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EURASIANS at the GRASSROOTS – VOL. 1

1 Jan

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 EURASIANS at the GRASSROOTS – VOL. 1 

(DOWNLOAD eBOOK FOR FREE by visiting the website with the link above)

EURASIANS at the GRASSROOTS – VOL. 1
ISBN: 9781310573545
Description: Eurasians at the Grassroots – Vol.1 is a collection of short stories regarding Eurasians and the memories of Eurasians. Its purpose is to collect and publish stories as a collective work about Eurasians, by Eurasians and for Eurasians. There are stories about Eurasians contributed from Malaysia, Singapore, as well as from Australia, The Netherlands and USA.
Word Count: 15,150 (approx.)

By Nutmeg Publishing
Co. No. SA0057587-D
Malaysia.

**In Support of the Malaysian Dutch Descendents Project (MDDP) ‘The Eurasians at the Grassroots Projects’ under the leadership of Dennis De Witt.**

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Artists and Images of the Second Boer War: Its Advances, Interpretations, and Implications!

1 Nov

Written By Simon Sundaraj-Keun

Introduction

Art and War became the basic norm as civilizations began to emerge around the known world. The implications of art upon a civilization was far fetching as today’s media has on society. Each evolutionary process was spurred by revolutionary events that effects society’s from its very foundation. War is the ultimate variable that inspire heroism and artistry from a scene that drench in blood and dead.

Does anyone wonder how artistic concepts or methodology evolve from one era into the next? Events like war create technological or social advancements which would change the course of a nation’s history. So how do a nation chronologically keep track of it successes in battle? Images are created through the brush, sculpture, or lens of an artist which is the medium between the soldier and civilian.

The Second Boer War (1899-1902) was a significant era in the evolutionary concept of images which became a tool of public interpretation, social implication, and technological advancement. Images produced from the Second Boer War became sensational news throughout the British Empire. In away the archaic form of mass media took shape out of this conflict. Newspapers, photographs, and artists became a source of information for the public as the war dragged on.

The Second Boer War, commonly referred to as The Boer War and also known as the South African War (outside of South Africa), the Anglo-Boer War (among some South Africans) and in Afrikaners society as the Second War of Independence. It was fought from October 11, 1899 until 31 May 31, 1902 between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic). After a long-drawn-out war, the two independent Boer republics lost and were absorbed into the British Empire.

One have to wonder what was the process like in receiving news from the front lines? There were the telegraph, and steamers racing back and forth between South Africa and Britain. The growth of newspapers, war correspondents, and photographers were relied on the British populations to report on the war progress in South Africa.

Unfortunately, there were few newspapers or magazines printed by the Afrikaner side. The reaction that this research could analyze was diaries or journals of Boers to get a reaction on the images publish by Britain. Even that would make a hypotheses analysis of what the Boers reacted too. There were abundant materials on the British interpretation of visual information and its implication on society. One has to understand that the media of early 20th century was crude at best but still efficient in relaying its message to the common people.

The Medium and Its Audience

However the communications from the frontlines of South Africa was still primitive in modern standards but it was a fantastic source of information. The power of perception by the general public on the images coming out of the Second Boer War is a potent as today’s streaming of information through the television or internet. In order to understand the implications of the images from the Second Boer War one has to imagine as an individual living in a Victorian Era. Where does one obtain information or let alone illustrations from the far corners of the British Empire? Was there such a thing as a pictorial news outlet?

Take the Illustrated London News, a magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and Mark Lemon (the editor of Punch magazine). The first edition of the Illustrated London News appeared on 14 May 1842. The magazine included pictures of the wars from Afghanistan to South Africa. It covered all known activities occurring around the globe. The decline in subscriptions contributed to the magazine weekly publishes until 1971, when it became a monthly. In 1989, it was published bi-monthly, than quarterly and currently bi-annually. The Illustrated London News exists today as the Illustrated London News Group.

Newspapers and magazines tend to offer its readers a source of information on their nations finest in battle. One’s interpretation of the war would be through the images and artists that contribute to the illustrative articles in Britain. It is also an effective way to spur recruitment due to the ongoing Imperial expansion and the decline of Britain’s industrial revolution. The romantic image of serving for the Crown in a far off outpost in the Empire seem fetching than starving in the slums of London. For others it would bring honor and glory to the family or to established oneself on the social ladder of the British class system. Influences that romanticized war and the British colonial military were art works created by prominent artists that have traveled through out the British Empire.

The Battle of Rorke’s Drift (1879) is a great example of romanticized war which was first dramatized by military painters, notably Elizabeth Butler and Alphonse de Neuville. Lady Butler painted the The Defense of Rorke’s Drift (1881) and Neuville painted his version of the same battle in 1880. Their work was vastly popular in its day among the citizens of the British Empire, but virtually forgotten by the time the film Zulu (1964). Alphonse Marie Adolphe de Neuville (May 31, 1835-May 18, 1885) was a French Academic painter who studied under Eugene Delacroix. His subjects included the Franco-Prussian War, the Crimean War, the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Elizabeth Thompson, Lady Butler (3 November 1846-2 October 1933) was a British painter. She was married to Lieutenant General Sir William Butler (31 October 1838-7 June 1910). During this time she also came under the influence of her husband’s “Irish-inclined beliefs” that the colonial imperialism of countries like Great Britain may not be in the best interest of the native people in far off lands.

Military artists career blossom by association with generals or governments. Most artists seized on the moment of a battle and demonstrated their treatment of it that they had found their vocation as a soldier’s artist. The military element for the artist was important to remain intertwines with the British public and army. Artist received from war a new and lively stimulation which drove them to the very heart of the events which they portrayed; but as the army, and its general separated from the people but the artist could be called on to exemplify chapters representative only of the fulfillment of individual aspiration, ceased to find the sustenance essential to their brilliance, and the deficiency of their artistic position became apparent. Most artists in the Second Boer War were trained in the sect of the Classicists, they was bind by their regulations, even whereby their naturalistic treatment of types, and appeal to picturesque consequence in shade and tenor that seemed to run contradict to them.

The Relief of Ladysmith (1900) painted by John Henry Frederick Bacon (1868-1914) illustrates Sir George White welcomes Major Hubert Gough who broke the Boer siege around Ladysmith (30 October 1899-28 February 1900). This painting demonstrates the resiliency of the British Army in the eyes of the public. It is also not an art work that was for public display but it was distributed in magazines and newspapers as an illustration of the ongoing victories of the British Army. It was a slide note on the harsh reality faced by the common soldier. To the general public it is perceived to be true because there is no other type of medium to contradict the basic norm of information. Where there any advances that came to play on the emotions of the populace? Or do the paintings speak volume to the heart of a nation?

A Picture Worth A Thousand Words

Paintings of the Second Boer War revolutionize the direction of paintings and images in general into a more direct role that is in line with the leadership of a nation-state. The paintings of the British Empire during the Boer War were similar to the paintings of 19th century revolutionary France. The idea of a revolution been portrayed in images is to demonstrate the sense of nationalism within a state infrastructure. The paintings by military assigned British artist were to legitimize Britain’s struggle to subdue the Boers in order to secure the British Empire position on the global arena. The popularization of war through images demonstrates the will of a nation in enduring the pestilence of war unmoved, challenging the marvelous instant of victory, and heart-sick with the bitter cost of a hard-won battlefield in order to be immortalized in the annals of world civilization.

One may affiliate the strife of a nation through an image that has no dire implications on a person’s environment. Yet the images of soldiers suffering from defeat or marching in triumph instill a sense of national pride and prestige. People of the British Empire demand more images of their military as a sign of support. Images of victories during the Second Boer Wars instill a sense of strength and defeats inspire the flames of patriotism. Painters learnt from Lady Butler decline in popularity due to her fairness in depicting the suffering and hardship of British soldiers in the face of death. The British person on the street is naive to the inflammability of its military during combat. The truth is most of the battles if not all that were depicted by artists was true to the events that inspired them. So any images demonstrating weakness were regarded as heresy by the British people but what about photographs of the dying Boer children or propaganda of the war?

The controversy that came out of the Second Boer War was the British introduction of concentration camps. These concentration camps housed Boer women and children through out the conflict which by the end of the war saw more caskets than reunited families. One image that came to mind was the photo of “Lizzie van Zyl” . Lizzie was only 9 years old when that picture was taken by an associate of Emily Hobhouse. Women and children were victims of British policy in quelling the Afrikaner guerrillas.

Unfortunately for young Lizzie, she died at Bloemfontein concentration camp but her death added to Emily plight to inform the world on the horrors occurring in South Africa. Those images of British atrocities on Afrikaner civilians were leak out into newspapers and magazines around the world. If those horrible images were painted no one would have believe Emily Hobhouse but the advancement of photography made possible for the world to know what took place in South Africa. Emily Hobhouse (April 9, 1860-June 8, 1926) was a British welfare activist, who is primarily remembered for shedding light on the bad conditions inside the British concentration camps built for Boer women and children during the Second Boer War.

Questioning the Empire

One has to understand that in the Second Boer War there were a number of soldiers that were from other parts of the British Empire. These countries had their own internal disputes over whether they should remain tied to the United Kingdom, or have full independence, which carried over into the debate around the sending of forces to assist the United Kingdom. Though not fully independent on foreign affairs, these countries did have a say over how much support to provide, and the manner in which it would be provided.

Ultimately, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand set men to aid the United Kingdom. Soldiers were also raised to fight with the British from the Cape Colony and India. Some Boers fighters such as Jan Smuts and Louis Botha were technically British subjects as they came from the Cape Province and Colony of Natal respectively. So one could imagine the ripple effects of the photos of women and children dying in concentration camps had on United Kingdom’s dominion.

Images of the dying civilians became a contention point between Britain and the rest of her dominion within the Empire. The Australians, New Zealanders, and Canadians wanted a swift end to this conflict. Plus nations like Netherlands, Germany, and France was placing their moral support on the Boers resistance. The United States who had witness the atrocities in Cuba during the Spanish-American War wanted a peaceful resolution to the conflict. Victorian Britain was divided on the situation that has eroded in South African and fragmentation of their moral image of the caretakers of the civilized world which has been shaken by civilian deaths.

Furthermore, the suffering of innocence struck a nerve within the Boers resistance which wanted to persuade peace with the British. The British for the most part had tight control over the media going in and out of South Africa. Yet there were sympathetic nations or individuals that tend to smuggle out documents or photographs. No one could actually hide paintings and why should they? Most paints were commission by the British government. Images by a camera would be smuggle out and published in newspapers or magazines. The London Times were infamous for defying the British governmental censors in order to publish the truth.

The interpretation of the images on the atrocities within the British controlled concentration camps could be best descried in similarity to the Holocaust. Society of the Victorian Era had some preconception of Spanish cruelty in Cuba’s War of independence and the Spanish-American War. The information black out of America’s brutal tactics and policy in its quelling of guerillas in the Philippines Insurgency was mysterious to the American public and the rest of the world. These events were not well documented into images which only left the Second Boer War as a raw source of carnage and horror in the minds of the general population within the British Empire and the world. The difference between the Boer civilians and other atrocities committed by other powers was the Second Boer War confines itself to Europeans killing Europeans.

The war highlighted the issues of Britain’s policy of non-alignment and deepened her isolation in Europe and the rest of the world. The 1900 British general election, also known as the Khaki election, was called by the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, on the back of recent British victories. There was much enthusiasm for the war at this point, resulting in a victory for the Conservative government. However, public support quickly waned as it became apparent that the war would not be easy and it dragged on, partially contributing to the Conservatives’ spectacular defeat in 1906. The power of images describing victories gave politics vigor to expand their sphere of influence but when those victories turned into defeats so does the nations discontent of its politicians.

There was public outrage at the use of scorched earth tactics which resulted the burning of Boer homesteads and the conditions in the concentration camps. It also became apparent that there were serious problems with public health of recruits that were unfit for military service, suffering from medical problems such as rickets and other poverty related illnesses. This came at a time of increasing concern for the state of the poor in Britain. Images of soldiers dying in hospitals became more prominent that those killed by enemy action on the front-lines. The public that were pro-British begun to question its government but other citizenry within the British Empire decided to aid the Boer cause.

Many Irish nationalists sympathized with the Boers, seeing them as a people oppressed by the British, much like themselves. Irish miners already in South Africa at the start of the war formed the core of two Irish commandos. The Second Irish Brigade was headed up by an Australian of Irish parents, Colonel Arthur Lynch. In addition, Irish volunteers went to South Africa to fight with the Boers and despite the fact that there were many Irish troops fighting with the British army. In Britain, the Pro-Boer campaign expanded, with writers like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who often idealize the Boer society with inspirations deriving from the London Times newspapers and photographs taken of the conditions in South Africa.

Advances in Visualization

The emotions of photos had on the individual been unparalleled in history in contrast to paintings. As stated early an image like Lizzie van Zyl struck the core Victorian society and global response to the horrors of war. Even the camera had been around since the mid 19th century but it was revolutionizing itself over the decades into something compact but not as refine to those in the 1920s. Yet how did photographs got into the papers? Who pioneered this transition from prints into a mass medium? What was the equipment like? As we saw how an image rattle the foundation of society but lets now look how the advancement of visual information is a transcendent from paintings to photo prints.

The use of photographic film was pioneered by George Eastman, who started manufacturing paper film in 1885 before switching to celluloid in 1889. Just imagine with in a decade this roll of film was used in documenting the conditions in South Africa. George Eastman (July 12, 1854 to March 14, 1932) founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film, which brought photography to the common man. The roll film was also the basis for the invention of the motion picture film in 1888 by world’s first filmmaker, Louis Le Prince, and a decade later by his followers Leon Bouly, Thomas Edison, the Limeira Brothers and Georges Melies.

Eastman first camera, which he named the Kodak, was first offered for sale in 1888. It was a very simple box camera with a fixed-focus lens and single shutter speed, which along with its relatively low price appealed to the average consumer. The Kodak came pre-loaded with enough film for 100 exposures and needed to be sent back to the factory for processing and reloading when the roll was finished. By the end of the 19th century Eastman had expanded his lineup to several models including both box and folding cameras.

In 1900, Eastman took mass-market photography one step further with the Brownie, a simple and very inexpensive box camera that introduced the concept of the snapshot. The Brownie was extremely popular and various models remained on sale until the 1960s.

Despite the advances in low-cost photography made possible by Eastman, plate cameras still offered higher-quality prints and remained popular well into the 20th century. It was with the effort by Eastman and individuals like him that gave the world a new and quicker look on the conditions of war occurring in far corners of the globe.

There was also an evolution for Collodion dry from wet plates that had been available since 1855, thanks to the work of Desire van Monckhoven, but it was not until the invention of the gelatin dry plate in 1871 by Richard Leach Maddox that it began to rivaled wet plates in speed and quality. Desire Charles Emanuel van Monckhoven (1834 to 1882) was a Belgian chemist, physicist, and optician, who wrote several of the earliest books on photography and photographic optics, in French, later translated to English and other languages. Monckhoven invented and developed an enlarger (1864), a dry Collodion process (1871), improvements of the carbon print process (1875–80), and improved silver-bromide gelatin emulsions.
Richard Leach Maddox (August 4, 1816 – May 11, 1902) was an English photographer and physician who invented lightweight gelatin negative plates for photography in 1871.

The wet plate Collodion process had been invented in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer. As a result, images required only 2 to 3 seconds of light exposure. But the plates had to be sensitized at the time of exposure and processed immediately. While Collodion dry plates had been available since 1855, thanks to Desire van Monckhoven, it was not until Maddox’s idea for the gelatin dry plate was realized that they rivaled wet plates in speed and quality.

When he noticed that his health was being affected by the wet collodion’s ether vapor, he started looking for a substitute. He suggested in an 1871 British Journal of Photography article that sensitizing chemicals cadmium bromide and silver nitrate should be coated on a glass plate in gelatin, a transparent substance used for making candies. Eventually Charles Bennett made the first gelatin dry plates for sale and not before long the emulsion could be coated on celluloid roll film.

The advantages of the dry plate were obvious: photographers could use commercial dry plates off the shelf instead of having to prepare their own emulsions in a mobile darkroom. Also, for the first time, cameras could be made small enough to be hand-held, or even concealed. There was a proliferation of various designs, from single and twin lens reflexes to large and bulky field cameras, handheld cameras, and even cameras disguised as pocket watches, hats, or other objects. The shortened exposure times that made candid photography possible also necessitated another innovation, the mechanical shutter. The very first shutters were separate accessories, though built-in shutters were common by the turn of the century.

In turn, the pictures taken by the camera will become a form of sketch book where by artist use it as blueprints for their art works. The development of photography as a medium was due to the demand of the masses for quick and transparent visuals as a source of information. The Second Boer War was a footnote in the development and perfection of photography before it was fully implemented in World War One and beyond.

Analysis

The Second Boer War was a struggle for Boer freedom and for the British it was to expand an Empire. If one to look between the lines there was a subtle difference between the previous war that was fought by the Crown. This difference was the vast information that hit major newspapers around the globe that were filled with illustrations as first then transforming into a distribution of photo prints till the end of the conflict.

There were some interesting known facts about the Second Boer which is open for debate. Yet instead of the British punishing the Boers for their defiance against the British Empire the Boers were give a considerable amount of financial aid to rebuild their nation. The Boers were allowed to serve government and unite all of South Africa under a single government. The actions of the British could be contributed to the Boers civilian population suffered almost 30,000 dead during the conflict. Plus there was growing popular discontent back in the United Kingdom and its Imperial dominion over the treatment of Boers civilians during the conflict.

Images played a crucial from the romanticized of a conflict by inspiring a nation during victories. But as soon the conflict was prolonged the people began to question its government. United Kingdom is a parliamentary government and as democracy it is prone to the pressure by its people. There were social illnesses in Victorian society which needed fixing but the officials decided to look outside its home island to expand and distract its populace from the troubles plaguing its nation. The advances made in the industrial revolution was spiraling down as other nations on the European continent like Germany seem to be progressing ahead in the industrialize world.

The freedom of the press played a role in the distribution of images and the decline of paintings in the form of illustrations for the general public. Most of Britain’s dominion at this time was literate and the interpretation of images was a key for discontent among its colonial subjects. The Second Boer War reminded the British public of the triumph of their military through art but it was the advancement of photography demonstrated the frailty of the British Empire. One should understand that the people of the British Empire do travel outside of their borders unless they are intellectuals, traders or soldiers. Thus their knowledge of the outside world is limited to what they read or hear or see. It is easy to control and manipulate the emotions and psychology of the British people prior to the Second Boer War.

The depiction in art of their enemies being killed by their triumphant army was replaced by women and children dying in British concentration camps were taking a toll on Britain’s government. The common British citizen began to think of the logic in expanding the Empire and the so-called eliminating the Boer threat to their Empire. Remember the British viewed themselves as civilized and those who were outside of their sphere of influence needed to be save by them.

Photos set the stage for future leaders to prevent the same social divided that plague the British administration during the Second Boer Wars. In order to build greater public support is to glorify one’s own military success by releasing nationalistic theme pictures. The value of photos and to a lesser extend paintings/illustrations is an important tool to for political survivability. This demonstrated to the British government and the rest of the world that the power of the media can sustain or diminish the popularity of politicians. The power of perception is a weapon that would aid a leader in sustaining his/her holds over the masses and rallying their support when a crisis arises.

One would also conclude that the people of United Kingdom did not question the image they saw in paintings hung from the walls of galleries. The objectivity of the evidence that the British were facing continuous defeated and hard earn victories during the Second Boer War never made it into the paintings. Since many men were from the slums of London and other British dominions were of lower classes serve in the South African Conflict were seen through photos in newspapers and magazines began to stir the public lack of support for the British conservative government. The power of images lies in the perceptions of the masses and their impact on a democratic government is crucial by influencing peace or warlike policy by a government.

Conclusion

The advances of photography changed the perception of society and revolutionize the power of media upon its audiences. It was during the Second Boer War that the experimentation of posters begun to take shape in order to increase recruitment in the British Dominion. In way the decline of paintings begun to evolve into an advertisement drive for troops but war poster will take shape in World War One
Art and War during the Second Boer War goes hand in hand with the struggle of Britain to maintain order within its Empire.

In order to maintain stability the British leadership needed a cause to unify its dominion which seems on the verge of disintegration. The Boer conflict was the answer for the early stages but as the war drag on it became a calling card for Britain’s dominions like Canada, New Zealand, and Australia to push for Independence. It was likely that Britain leaders had hope its people to support its army as they did during the Napoleonic Wars. The commission paintings of the glorification of the British military campaigns to reassure the sense of security among the populace would back fire with the introduction of photography.

The Boers took the political unrest back in Britain to legitimize their hold on South Africa by portraying themselves as a victim of British Imperial aggression. For the most part the Boers were right and receive aid from Britain and its foes and allies alike after the war. The Boers immortalize their legacy by collecting the numerous images, construction of sculptures and memorials around South Africa which continued to survive till this present day in age as reminder to the sacrifices made during the Second Boer War. The direct message that the Boers send to their rivals and the people of world was that they were in charge of the political, cultural, and national identity aspect of South Africa.

On a personal note, I do believe that British wanted to touch the emotional aspect of their subjects’ trough art but fail to comprehend that times have change. Photography pioneered the expression of humanity depth or essence which aided to the emotional package when viewed by the audience. Artists and Images of the Second Boer War: Its Advances, Interpretations, and Implications examine a new way in portraying battle art as an inspiration for future leaders to understand importance of visual technology and use it as a tool to unite a nation. It is through the lens of the past that enable one to change the future.

Bibliography

Published Primary Sources

St. Leger, S.E. War Sketches in Color. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1903

Stallman, R. W, and Hagemann, E. R, ed. The War Dispatched of Stephen Crane. New York: New York University Press, 1964.

Secondary Sources

Books

Attridge, Steve. Nationalism, Imperialism and Identity in late Victorian Culture: Civil and Military worlds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Barthrop, Michael. The Anglo-Boer wars: The British and the Afrikaners from 1815-1902, London: Blandford, 1987

Gooch, John, ed. The Boer War: Direction, Experience, and Image. London: Frank Cass, 2000.

Krebs, Paula M. Gender, Race, and the Writing of Empire: Public discourse and the Boer War. New York Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Meintjes, Johannes. The Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902: A Pictorial History. Cape Town: Struik Company, 1976.

Internet Sources

Barnard, Hennie. The Concentration Camps 1899-1902, http://www.appiusforum.com/hellkamp.html (Accessed 16 October 2006)

Bio at Spartacus Educational Schoolnet. Lady Butler. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jbutler.htm (Accessed 10 December 2006)

Emily Hobhouse, http://www.anglo-boer.co.za/emily.html (Accessed 21 November 2006)

History of Photography in Brighton, PART 6: ‘Dry Plate’ Photography (Last Updated 23 December 2002) http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/DSphotodry5E1.htm (Accessed 1 December 2006)

Kodak. History of Kodak: George Eastman http://www.kodak.com/US/en/corp/kodakHistory/eastmanTheMan.shtml (Accessed 31 October 2006)

Timeline Krone-Sammlung. Monckhoven, Désiré Charles Emanuel van http://www.knaw.nl/ECPA/sepia/exhibition/iapp/Glossary/M_02.htm (Accessed 28 November 2006)
Media

Zulu (1964). DVD. USA: MGM, 2003.

References

Cederlof, Olle, The Battle Painting as a Historical Source: An Inquiry into the Principles, Revue internationale d’histoire militaire, 7 (1), (1967), 119-144

Hale, John. Artists and Warfare in the Renaissance, New Haven and London, 1990.

Harrington, Peter. British Artists and War. The Face of Battle in Paintings and Prints, 1700-1914, London, Greenhill, 1993.

Kuspit, Donald B., Uncivil War, Artforum, (April 1983), 34-43

Paret, Peter. Imagined Battles. Reflections of War in European Art, Chapel Hill, UNC Press, 1997.

Perlmutter, David D. Visions of War. Picturing warfare from the stone age to the cyber age, New York, St. Martin’s, 1999.

Prendergast, Christopher. Napoleon and History Painting, Cambridge, CUP, 1996.

Silva, Anil de, and Otto von Simson (eds) Man Through His Art. Vol. 1. War and Peace (London, Educational Productions Ltd., 1963)

Further Readings

Attridge, Steve. Nationalism, Imperialism and Identity in late Victorian Culture: Civil and Military worlds. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Crawford, John, and McGibbon, Ian, ed. One flag, One queen, One tongue: New Zealand, the British Empire, and the South African War, 1899-1902. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2003.

Doyle, Arthur Conan. The Great Boer War. London: Smith & Elder, 1900.

Koss, Stephen E, ed. The Anatomy of an Antiwar Movement: The Pro-Boers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973.

Lehmann, Joseph H. The First Boer War. London: Blandford, 1972.

McCracken, Donal P. Forgotten Protest: Ireland and the Anglo-Boer War. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation, 2003.

Omissi, David, and Thompson, Andrew S, ed. The Impact of the South African War. New York: Palgrave, 2002.

Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. New York: Random House, 1979.

Price, Richard. An Imperial War and the British Working Class: Working Class attitudes and reactions to the Boer War, 1899-1902. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1972.

Van Wyk Smith, Malvern. Drummer Hodge: The Poetry of the Anglo-Boer War, 1899-1902. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978.

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